(n.) A hard, compact variety of mineral coal, of high luster, differing from bituminous coal in containing little or no bitumen, in consequence of which it burns with a nearly non luminous flame. The purer specimens consist almost wholly of carbon. Also called glance coal and blind coal.
(1) But then a mismanaged clean-up in an underground garbage dump ignited a seam of anthracite eight miles long that proved impossible to extinguish.
(2) Eventually, long before all that anthracite has burned away, the town will probably collapse into the empty seam below and disappear completely.
(3) Significantly greater (P less than 0.05) depression (coinhibition) of viral interferon induction (greater than 83%) resulted when bioactivated B[a]P was incorporated with coal particles representative of coal rank (anthracite, bituminous, lignite, peat).
(4) Two kinds of coal mine dust, low rank with high quartz (bituminous) and high rank with low quartz (anthracite), were assayed for ability to induce alveolitis and to stimulate interleukin-1 release from normal alveolar macrophages in vitro.
(5) The union used the hearings of the US Anthracite Coal Strike Commission of 1902-3 to draw public attention to "miners' asthma."
(6) Soon roads started to melt, and a huge fiery chasm opened up in the back garden of a house, as the ground collapsed into the vast anthracite seam below.
(7) Examination of one such soil shows that the organic material is finely divided anthracite coal.
(8) In these 250 mines a progressive and five-fold increase in prevalence was observed from collieries mining low-rank (bituminous) coal to those mining coal of high ranks (anthracite and high-grade steam and coking coal).
(9) Studies with the organic solvent extracts of all five ranks of coal indicate that the extracts of bituminous, lignite, and peat, but not anthracite, induced SCEs.
(10) The apparent excess prevalence of radiographic small rounded opacities in anthracite surface coal mine drillers suggests that quartz exposures have been increased.
(11) Freshly ground anthracite coal produced greater concentration of free radicals than the bituminous coal, and the radical reactivity was also greater for the anthracite.
(12) In 1984-1985, medical examinations consisting of a chest radiograph, spirometry test, and questionnaire on work history, respiratory symptoms, and smoking history were administered to 1,061 white males who were employed at 31 coal cleaning plants and strip coal mines in the anthracite coal region of northeastern Pennsylvania.
(13) Total mutagenic activity (the activity per gram of coal pyrolyzed), however, varied with coal type according to the order: high volatile bituminous much greater than subbituminous = lignite much greater than anthracite, due primarily to high organic yield during high volatile bituminous coal pyrolysis.
(14) Similar experiments conducted with water extracts show that bituminous, lignite, and peat, but not sub-bituminous extracts, induced SCEs, and that anthracite was equivocal.
(15) The specific mutagenic activity (i.e., the activity per unit sample weight) of extracts from particulates and volatiles captured on XAD-2 resin varied with coal type according to the order: subbituminous greater than high volatile bituminous greater than lignite greater than anthracite.
(16) Given that there is enough anthracite coal down there to burn for another 250 years, most people have long since abandoned Centralia (although remarkably, Bill Bryson found 10 people still in residence when he visited to research his book A Walk In The Woods in 1996).
(17) It develops especially in miners working in anthracite coal-mines and in persons exposed to silica and asbestos.
(18) The effect we observed regarding the anthracite lustre using low temperatures was typical, and the best results were obtained in dental roots with eight color scales.
(19) The reactivity of the newly produced free radicals in the anthracite dust correlated with the dust's toxicity.
(20) An experiment on rats in vivo with bituminous, anthracitic and brown coal dusts from eight coal mines showed that the fibrogenic degree in experimental rats was related to the free silica contents of the coal dust, which varied from 0.72% to 9.84% in our experiment.
(n.) Mineral coal retaining the texture of the wood from which it was formed, and burning with an empyreumatic odor. It is of more recent origin than the anthracite and bituminous coal of the proper coal series. Called also brown coal, wood coal.
(1) This in turn meant frantic investment in German coal and lignite – 10 new plants are said to be opening – and a surge in Polish coal output.
(2) "It will lock Kosovo into a future of dependency [on] lignite.
(3) The sulfuric acid in the fly ash of Montana lignite is neutralized by its high alkali content and produces no change in lung functions.
(4) While Germany continues to expand solar and wind power, the government’s decision to phase out nuclear energy means it must now rely heavily on the dirtiest form of coal, lignite, to generate electricity.
(5) Coals and lignites having typical concentrations of 238U emanate no more 222Rn than do comparable masses of typical soils.
(6) If we face fiscal difficulties from abroad in the medium term, then to burn more lignite instead of importing energy will seem a wise thing to do,” a Syriza source said.
(7) The fee would have forced operators to buy extra certificates for their emissions from the European Trading Scheme for CO2 emission allowances, thus making electricity from lignite less profitable.
(8) This can largely be attributed to an increase in the use of lignite for electricity production.
(9) To build one new lignite plant but replace two others which are of older technology and emit more pollution, could be seen in technical terms as an improvement,” Harris Konstantatos, a member of Syriza’s central committee, told the Guardian, from Athens.
(10) Greenpeace said that if Europe is to continue to play its part in keeping the world within the internationally accepted limit of 2C of warming, 90% of the carbon contained in its lignite reserves must remain buried.
(11) At the same time, electricity from lignite became cheaper due to another factor: As economies throughout Europe weakened due to the global financial crisis, companies reduced their production and thus had to buy fewer EU certificates for emitting CO2.
(12) Significantly greater (P less than 0.05) depression (coinhibition) of viral interferon induction (greater than 83%) resulted when bioactivated B[a]P was incorporated with coal particles representative of coal rank (anthracite, bituminous, lignite, peat).
(13) One way or another Greek lignite will be exploited.” Syriza is also keeping cards close to its chest on the issue of an east Mediterranean gas pipeline to alleviate Europe’s energy security concerns, with gas from Cyprus and Israel.
(14) New coal power stations designed to burn Europe’s massive deposits of lignite pose a serious threat to the continent’s decarbonisation efforts, according to figures released on Wednesday.
(15) The emanation of 222Rn from several coal samples (including lignites) was measured as a function of particle size and water content.
(16) Gerben-Jan Gerbrandy, a Dutch Liberal MEP on the environment committee, said: “Lignite [coal] has no future and should not be stimulated in any way.
(17) Greece’s intention of using public funds to revive its lignite-based model should not be allowed.
(18) The facility, which burns the most polluting lignite "brown" coal from its own mine next door, is earmarked for a full carbon capture and storage prototype, but only by 2015 at the earliest.
(19) In steam generators fired with lignite which contains less than 0.1 per cent of chloride, the concentration of chlorine compounds emitted will range from 5 to 80 mg m-3, and of chlorohydrogen from 1-75 mg m-3.
(20) Both farms are sited in a mining area (intensive lignite extraction).