(a.) Having the qualities of bitumen; compounded with bitumen; containing bitumen.
(1) Specified cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of coal dust extract (mixture of solvent extractions of bituminous coal nitrosated by NaNO2) were investigated because of the association of an excess risk of gastric cancer in coal miners.
(2) Samples of ash from eastern bituminous coal, western bituminous coal and mid-western bituminous coal with aerodynamic equivalent diameters of less than 15 micron were examined, and the measured emanation coefficients ranged from 0.098 down to 0.007.
(3) The polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) produced from the pyrolysis of a bituminous coal at temperatures of 1125 to 1425 degrees K prove to be mutagenic to S. typhimurium, both in the presence and in the absence of postmitochondrial supernatant (PMS) prepared from Aroclor 1254-induced rat liver.
(4) From a second storage tank which had been coated at the same time bituminous coating material and air samples could be taken.
(5) Significantly greater (P less than 0.05) depression (coinhibition) of viral interferon induction (greater than 83%) resulted when bioactivated B[a]P was incorporated with coal particles representative of coal rank (anthracite, bituminous, lignite, peat).
(6) Two kinds of coal mine dust, low rank with high quartz (bituminous) and high rank with low quartz (anthracite), were assayed for ability to induce alveolitis and to stimulate interleukin-1 release from normal alveolar macrophages in vitro.
(7) After the exposure of the bituminous coating material in aqua bidest.
(8) Because nonsmoking underground bituminous coal miners often have symptoms of chronic bronchitis and because a high proportion of patients with chronic bronchitis have nonspecific airway hyperreactivity, we hypothesized that coal miners would have a higher prevalence of nonspecific airway hyperreactivity than nonminer nonsmoking control subjects.
(9) In these 250 mines a progressive and five-fold increase in prevalence was observed from collieries mining low-rank (bituminous) coal to those mining coal of high ranks (anthracite and high-grade steam and coking coal).
(10) Studies with the organic solvent extracts of all five ranks of coal indicate that the extracts of bituminous, lignite, and peat, but not anthracite, induced SCEs.
(11) To determine the prevalence with which bituminous coal miners fall below the arterial tensions of both oxygen and carbon dioxide published in the Federal Register, we studied 1012 miners who had both reproducible spirometry and arterial blood gas analysis as part of their disability evaluation.
(12) Thirteen percent of impaired bituminous coal miners had acceptable pulmonary function but were eligible for black lung benefits by the blood gas guidelines.
(13) Relationships among mine and injured miner characteristics and degrees of injury are examined for 91 404 injuries in underground bituminous coal mines in the United States from 1975 through 1982.
(14) Freshly ground anthracite coal produced greater concentration of free radicals than the bituminous coal, and the radical reactivity was also greater for the anthracite.
(15) Our data indicate that, in the case of bituminous coal miners, the present federal legislation intended to identify and remunerate those who suffer lung impairment from chronic occupational exposure to coal dust is biased in favor of those who sustain additional damage to their ventilatory capacity by smoking cigarettes.
(16) Total mutagenic activity (the activity per gram of coal pyrolyzed), however, varied with coal type according to the order: high volatile bituminous much greater than subbituminous = lignite much greater than anthracite, due primarily to high organic yield during high volatile bituminous coal pyrolysis.
(17) Based upon its superior catalytic activity for H2O2 decomposition, a bituminous coal-based activated carbon was selected for investigations of pretreatment and enzyme immobilization methods.
(18) Alveolar macrophages from bituminous coal mine dust- or titanium dioxide-exposed lungs showed increased ability to release interleukin-1 on stimulation in vitro.
(19) Similar experiments conducted with water extracts show that bituminous, lignite, and peat, but not sub-bituminous extracts, induced SCEs, and that anthracite was equivocal.
(20) At the same time, the staff of the union health plan pressed the US Public Health Service and the Pennsylvania Department of Health to investigate the prevalence of occupational respiratory diseases among bituminous miners.
(n.) A thoroughly charred, and extinguished or still ignited, fragment from wood or other combustible substance; charcoal.
(n.) A black, or brownish black, solid, combustible substance, dug from beds or veins in the earth to be used for fuel, and consisting, like charcoal, mainly of carbon, but more compact, and often affording, when heated, a large amount of volatile matter.
(v. t.) To burn to charcoal; to char.
(v. t.) To mark or delineate with charcoal.
(v. t.) To supply with coal; as, to coal a steamer.
(v. i.) To take in coal; as, the steamer coaled at Southampton.
(1) The biggest single source of air pollution is coal-fired power stations and China, with its large population and heavy reliance on coal power, provides $2.3tn of the annual subsidies.
(2) Photograph: AP Reasons for wavering • State relies on coal-fired electricity • Poor prospects for wind power • Conservative Democrat • Represents conservative district in conservative state and was elected on narrow margins Campaign support from fossil fuel interests in 2008 • $93,743 G K Butterfield (North Carolina) GK Butterfield, North Carolina.
(3) Nick Robins, head of the Climate Change Centre at HSBC, said: "If you think about low-carbon energy only in terms of carbon, then things look tough [in terms of not using coal].
(4) The fact that it is still used is regrettable yet unavoidable at present, but the average quantity is three times less than the mercury released into the atmosphere by burning the extra coal need to power equivalent incandescent bulbs.
(5) According to the International Energy Agency, 147m Indians will remain without electricity into 2030 under a business as usual scenario emphasising coal.
(6) My grandfather was a coal miner and Nana was rather plump and bossy.
(7) Shenhua Watermark Coal, a subsidiary of the Chinese state-owned Shenhua Group, is waiting for final approval from Hunt for a $1.2bn open-cut coalmine on the edge of the plains, a little more than three kilometres from Hamparsum’s property.
(8) Instead the textbook simply reads: "Traditional industries, such as shipbuilding and coal mining, declined ... during her premiership, there were a number of important economic reforms within the UK".
(9) In the US, electricity accounts for 39% of emissions – and 75% of that is contributed by coal.
(10) A survey was conducted in southern Illinois with a population of 46 coal miners and ex-coal miners ranging in age from 42 to 86 years.
(11) Australia’s greatest contribution to global warming is through our coal, exported and burned in foreign power stations.
(12) By its calorific value the mycelial waste is equal to brown coal or peat.
(13) The DECC believes clusters of coal and gas plants with CCS would offer efficiency because they could share the costs of building and operating pipelines to storage facilities, probably in old North Sea oil and gas fields.
(14) Its few remaining mines involve people digging coal out of hillsides.
(15) That stake in eight Indonesian coal mines represents 1GT of future carbon dioxide emissions, more than Germany’s annual output.
(16) This brings lads like 12-year-old Matthew Mason down from the magnificent studio his father Mark, from a coal-mining town ravaged by pit closures, lovingly built him in the back garden at Gants Hill, north-east London.
(17) This in turn meant frantic investment in German coal and lignite – 10 new plants are said to be opening – and a surge in Polish coal output.
(18) "It would be ridiculous to encourage shale gas when in reality its greenhouse gas footprint could be as bad as or worse than coal.
(19) We conclude that there appears to be no benefit from exceeding a concentration of 5% crude coal tar in yellow soft paraffin in the treatment of patients with psoriasis and that the plateau in the dose-response curve for the action of crude coal tar in psoriasis begins at a point between 1 and 5%.
(20) Engie, the owner of Rugeley coal-fired station in Staffordshire, which made the most recent closure announcement earlier this month, blamed low wholesale power prices as much as carbon taxes for its decision .