(a.) Having the qualities of bitumen; compounded with bitumen; containing bitumen.
(1) Specified cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of coal dust extract (mixture of solvent extractions of bituminous coal nitrosated by NaNO2) were investigated because of the association of an excess risk of gastric cancer in coal miners.
(2) Samples of ash from eastern bituminous coal, western bituminous coal and mid-western bituminous coal with aerodynamic equivalent diameters of less than 15 micron were examined, and the measured emanation coefficients ranged from 0.098 down to 0.007.
(3) The polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) produced from the pyrolysis of a bituminous coal at temperatures of 1125 to 1425 degrees K prove to be mutagenic to S. typhimurium, both in the presence and in the absence of postmitochondrial supernatant (PMS) prepared from Aroclor 1254-induced rat liver.
(4) From a second storage tank which had been coated at the same time bituminous coating material and air samples could be taken.
(5) Significantly greater (P less than 0.05) depression (coinhibition) of viral interferon induction (greater than 83%) resulted when bioactivated B[a]P was incorporated with coal particles representative of coal rank (anthracite, bituminous, lignite, peat).
(6) Two kinds of coal mine dust, low rank with high quartz (bituminous) and high rank with low quartz (anthracite), were assayed for ability to induce alveolitis and to stimulate interleukin-1 release from normal alveolar macrophages in vitro.
(7) After the exposure of the bituminous coating material in aqua bidest.
(8) Because nonsmoking underground bituminous coal miners often have symptoms of chronic bronchitis and because a high proportion of patients with chronic bronchitis have nonspecific airway hyperreactivity, we hypothesized that coal miners would have a higher prevalence of nonspecific airway hyperreactivity than nonminer nonsmoking control subjects.
(9) In these 250 mines a progressive and five-fold increase in prevalence was observed from collieries mining low-rank (bituminous) coal to those mining coal of high ranks (anthracite and high-grade steam and coking coal).
(10) Studies with the organic solvent extracts of all five ranks of coal indicate that the extracts of bituminous, lignite, and peat, but not anthracite, induced SCEs.
(11) To determine the prevalence with which bituminous coal miners fall below the arterial tensions of both oxygen and carbon dioxide published in the Federal Register, we studied 1012 miners who had both reproducible spirometry and arterial blood gas analysis as part of their disability evaluation.
(12) Thirteen percent of impaired bituminous coal miners had acceptable pulmonary function but were eligible for black lung benefits by the blood gas guidelines.
(13) Relationships among mine and injured miner characteristics and degrees of injury are examined for 91 404 injuries in underground bituminous coal mines in the United States from 1975 through 1982.
(14) Freshly ground anthracite coal produced greater concentration of free radicals than the bituminous coal, and the radical reactivity was also greater for the anthracite.
(15) Our data indicate that, in the case of bituminous coal miners, the present federal legislation intended to identify and remunerate those who suffer lung impairment from chronic occupational exposure to coal dust is biased in favor of those who sustain additional damage to their ventilatory capacity by smoking cigarettes.
(16) Total mutagenic activity (the activity per gram of coal pyrolyzed), however, varied with coal type according to the order: high volatile bituminous much greater than subbituminous = lignite much greater than anthracite, due primarily to high organic yield during high volatile bituminous coal pyrolysis.
(17) Based upon its superior catalytic activity for H2O2 decomposition, a bituminous coal-based activated carbon was selected for investigations of pretreatment and enzyme immobilization methods.
(18) Alveolar macrophages from bituminous coal mine dust- or titanium dioxide-exposed lungs showed increased ability to release interleukin-1 on stimulation in vitro.
(19) Similar experiments conducted with water extracts show that bituminous, lignite, and peat, but not sub-bituminous extracts, induced SCEs, and that anthracite was equivocal.
(20) At the same time, the staff of the union health plan pressed the US Public Health Service and the Pennsylvania Department of Health to investigate the prevalence of occupational respiratory diseases among bituminous miners.
(n.) Mineral coal retaining the texture of the wood from which it was formed, and burning with an empyreumatic odor. It is of more recent origin than the anthracite and bituminous coal of the proper coal series. Called also brown coal, wood coal.
(1) This in turn meant frantic investment in German coal and lignite – 10 new plants are said to be opening – and a surge in Polish coal output.
(2) "It will lock Kosovo into a future of dependency [on] lignite.
(3) The sulfuric acid in the fly ash of Montana lignite is neutralized by its high alkali content and produces no change in lung functions.
(4) While Germany continues to expand solar and wind power, the government’s decision to phase out nuclear energy means it must now rely heavily on the dirtiest form of coal, lignite, to generate electricity.
(5) Coals and lignites having typical concentrations of 238U emanate no more 222Rn than do comparable masses of typical soils.
(6) If we face fiscal difficulties from abroad in the medium term, then to burn more lignite instead of importing energy will seem a wise thing to do,” a Syriza source said.
(7) The fee would have forced operators to buy extra certificates for their emissions from the European Trading Scheme for CO2 emission allowances, thus making electricity from lignite less profitable.
(8) This can largely be attributed to an increase in the use of lignite for electricity production.
(9) To build one new lignite plant but replace two others which are of older technology and emit more pollution, could be seen in technical terms as an improvement,” Harris Konstantatos, a member of Syriza’s central committee, told the Guardian, from Athens.
(10) Greenpeace said that if Europe is to continue to play its part in keeping the world within the internationally accepted limit of 2C of warming, 90% of the carbon contained in its lignite reserves must remain buried.
(11) At the same time, electricity from lignite became cheaper due to another factor: As economies throughout Europe weakened due to the global financial crisis, companies reduced their production and thus had to buy fewer EU certificates for emitting CO2.
(12) Significantly greater (P less than 0.05) depression (coinhibition) of viral interferon induction (greater than 83%) resulted when bioactivated B[a]P was incorporated with coal particles representative of coal rank (anthracite, bituminous, lignite, peat).
(13) One way or another Greek lignite will be exploited.” Syriza is also keeping cards close to its chest on the issue of an east Mediterranean gas pipeline to alleviate Europe’s energy security concerns, with gas from Cyprus and Israel.
(14) New coal power stations designed to burn Europe’s massive deposits of lignite pose a serious threat to the continent’s decarbonisation efforts, according to figures released on Wednesday.
(15) The emanation of 222Rn from several coal samples (including lignites) was measured as a function of particle size and water content.
(16) Gerben-Jan Gerbrandy, a Dutch Liberal MEP on the environment committee, said: “Lignite [coal] has no future and should not be stimulated in any way.
(17) Greece’s intention of using public funds to revive its lignite-based model should not be allowed.
(18) The facility, which burns the most polluting lignite "brown" coal from its own mine next door, is earmarked for a full carbon capture and storage prototype, but only by 2015 at the earliest.
(19) In steam generators fired with lignite which contains less than 0.1 per cent of chloride, the concentration of chlorine compounds emitted will range from 5 to 80 mg m-3, and of chlorohydrogen from 1-75 mg m-3.
(20) Both farms are sited in a mining area (intensive lignite extraction).