(adv.) Up to this time; hitherto; before; in time past.
(1) The heretofore "permanently and totally disabled versus able-bodied" principle in welfare reforms is being abbandoned.
(2) All cases heretofore described in immunocompromised hosts have involved the external auditory canal and mastoid areas.
(3) Heretofore, human tumor clonogenic assays or human glioma-bearing nude mice models were usually used for predicting the drug sensitivity of brain tumor.
(4) It is concluded that the heretofore pessimistic outlook regarding complete quadriplegia is unwarranted and that a more aggressive approach may result in a better functional outcome.
(5) Since basilar artery thrombosis is now a treatable condition, early diagnosis and documentation of functional deficits moves into a more important clinical area than heretofore.
(6) Taken together, these results suggest that processing of alpha-MSH is unlike that heretofore described for other peptide antigens and seems to involve APC handling to form the stimulatory moiety presented on the APC surface.
(7) However, the electrofocusing pattern of renin from pituitary tissue (pI = 4.43, 5.77) differed from that of plasma and kidney enzymes heretofore reported, a discrepancy which could be interpreted as evidence for the endogeneous synthesis of renin in the brain tissue.
(8) The facts that (a) essentially all particles, regardless of orientation, entrap cells, and (b) nonporous particles also entrap cells with high efficiency, indicate that filtration effects are irrelevant and that heretofore unrecognized hydrodynamic forces are alone responsible for the cell immobilization.
(9) Perhaps alpha activation is indicative of stimulating and excitatory effects induced by m-xylene exposure, which has been noted heretofore in the absorption phase of alcohol intake.
(10) The important otolaryngological manifestations of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC), which heretofore have not been described in otolaryngological and other specialty journals, are reviewed.
(11) Finding the chromosomal location of human genes that heretofore have been defined solely by phenotypes, in particular clinical phenotypes that are transmitted in Mendelian fashion in families, is an early and often crucial step in the process of identifying the molecular basis of a disease.
(12) Tumors of the skull base with carotid artery involvement have heretofore required carotid ligation or been deemed inoperable.
(13) Heteroplasmy, heretofore rarely observed, occurred frequently in these same two regions.
(14) Heretofore, unresolved was the question which skin element causes stimulation of vessel formation in this lesion: the epidermis, the dermis, vessels themselves, inflammatory cells, and so forth.
(15) The induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) with purified myelin basic protein (MBP) has, heretofore, required its incorporation in a water-in-oil emulsion or adsorption on particulate adjuvants.
(16) These anomalies in trisomy 22 mosaicism have not been emphasized heretofore.
(17) A detailed examination of a stillborn fetus with Apert's syndrome showed several unexpected findings, which prompted a reevaluation of the heretofore generally accepted hypotheses regarding the cause of the dysmorphic craniofacial features in this syndrome.
(18) Today's perspective of the endothelial cell recognizes its real significance, heretofore neglected, and anticipates important future contributions to improved medical management.
(19) Juan Salgado, community leader creating a model for workforce development and training among immigrant communities through a holistic approach that addresses language skills, education and other barriers to entering the workforce Beth Stevens, neuroscientist revealing the heretofore unknown role of microglial cells in neuron communication and prompting a fundamental shift in thinking about brain development in both healthy and unhealthy states.
(20) Multiple pyogenic granuloma-like lesions occurring at punch graft sites are an unusual complication of hair transplantation heretofore unreported.
(adv.) At which place; where.
(conj.) Considering that; it being the case that; since; -- used to introduce a preamble which is the basis of declarations, affirmations, commands, requests, or like, that follow.
(conj.) When in fact; while on the contrary; the case being in truth that; although; -- implying opposition to something that precedes; or implying recognition of facts, sometimes followed by a different statement, and sometimes by inferences or something consequent.
(1) This trend appeared to reverse itself in the low dose animals after 3 hr, whereas in the high dose group, cardiac output continued to decline.
(2) Patients with papillary carcinoma with a good cell-mediated immune response occurred with much lower infiltration of the tumor boundary with lymphocyte whereas the follicular carcinoma less cell-mediated immunity was associated with dense lymphocytic infiltration, suggesting the biological relevance of lymphocytic infiltration may be different for the two histologic variants.
(3) There was appreciable variation in toothbrush wear among subjects, some reducing their brush to a poor state in 2 weeks whereas with others the brush was rated as "good" after 10 weeks.
(4) The most actively proliferating region of the excurrent duct system is zone 3 of the epididymis, whereas the least active region is the ductuli efferentes.
(5) The newborn with critical AS typically presents with severe cardiac failure and the infant with moderate failure, whereas children may be asymptomatic.
(6) F(420) is photolabile aerobically in neutral and basic solutions, whereas the acid-stable chromophore is not photolabile under these conditions.
(7) Application of 40 microM NiCl2 reversibly blocked It while leaving Is intact, whereas 20 microM CdCl2 reversibly blocked Is, but not It.
(8) When micF was cloned into a high-copy-number plasmid it repressed ompF gene expression, whereas when cloned into a low-copy-number plasmid it did not.
(9) Ethanol and L-ethionine induce acute steatosis without necrosis, whereas azaserine, carbon tetrachloride, and D-galactosamine are known to produce steatosis with varying degrees of hepatic necrosis.
(10) Whereas strain Ga-1 was practically avirulent for mice, strain KL-1 produced death by 21 days in 50% of the mice inoculated.
(11) Eighty-two per cent of patients with falciparum malaria had recently returned from Africa whereas 82% with vivax malaria had visited Asia.
(12) The results indicate that OA-bearing macrophages primed T cells and generated helper T cells, whereas the culture of normal lymphocytes with soluble OA in the absence of macrophages generated suppressor T cells.
(13) After midazolam infusion, there was a 50% decrease in amplitude of P3 in response to target tones (P less than 0.006), whereas N3 latency increased by 40 ms (P less than 0.05).
(14) Maximal yields of lipid and aflatoxin were obtained with 30% glucose, whereas mold growth, expressed as dry weight, was maximal when the medium contained 10% glucose.
(15) Epidermal growth factor reduced plating efficiency by about 50% for A431 cells in different cell cycle phases whereas a slight increase in plating efficiency was seen for SiHa cells.
(16) Peak Expiratory Flow and Forced Expiratory Mean Flows in the ranges 0-25%, 25-50% and 50-75% of Forced Vital Capacity were significantly reduced in animals exposed to gasoline exhaust fumes, whereas the group exposed to ethanol exhaust fumes did not differ from the control group.
(17) When the eye was dissected into anterior uveal, scleral, and retinal complexes, prostaglandin D2 was formed in the highest degree in all the complexes, whereas prostaglandin E2 and F2 alpha formation was specific to given ocular regions.
(18) This mAb inhibited monocyte binding of both soluble FITC-labeled IgA and IgA-coated E, whereas it did not inhibit IgG binding.
(19) Chloroquine induced large cytoplasmic vacuoles, whereas the other drugs (quinacrine, 4,4'-diethylaminoethoxyhexestrol, chlorphentermine, iprindole, 1-chloro-amitriptyline, clomipramine) caused formation of lamellated or crystalloid inclusions as usually seen in drug-induced lipidosis.
(20) hypoglossal nucleus), whereas in other areas the angiotensinogen gene was expressed only in a certain population of glial cells.