(n.) A large marine annelid (Arenicola marina) having a row of tufted gills along each side of the back. It is found burrowing in sandy beaches, both in America and Europe, and is used for bait by European fishermen. Called also lobworm, and baitworm.
(1) Lugworms, Arenicola marina (L.), acclimatized at 16-17 degrees C, were acclimated at temperatures between 5.3 and 25.7 degrees C for 96 h. Whereas in vitro Arenicola blood behaves like a Rosenthal system, in vivo prebranchial blood does not: the higher the acclimation temperature, the lower the pHv and [HCO3]V, PVCO2, remaining practically constant.
(2) Glycogenic metabolism of the lugworm A. marina was studied in vivo by 13C-NMR spectroscopy using 13C-labelled glucose.
(3) Lugworm protease C further purified by benzamidine-affinity chromatography, exhibited peptidase specificity for arginyl and lysyl bonds.
(4) Four cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase-activating activities, designated as A, B, C and D, were isolated from lugworm, Arenicola cristata, by preparative flat-bed isoelectric focusing.
(5) Oxygen consumption (MO2), haemoglobin oxygen saturation level (SVO2) and pH (pHv) in prebranchial blood were measured in lugworms experimentally confined in sea water at 15 degrees C. Total blood flow through the gills (Vb) was estimated.
(6) Lugworm GPase ab has shown a 2.4-fold higher specific activity as GPase b.
(7) 2) Freshly collected lugworms contained 3.5-3.8 mumol ATP, 0.8-1.0 mumol ADP, and 0.3-0.5 mumol AMP, as well as 4.5-4.7 mumol phosphotaurocyamine per g wet weight (energy charge 0.81-0.85).
(8) All the observed blood ABB variations reveal the complex intracellular processes through which the lugworm submitted to moderate osmotic shocks tentatively regulates, sometimes without any real success, its osmoticity and volume.
(9) Obviously, complementary physical, physiological and behavioral mechanisms allow the lugworm to live in sediments washed by almost fresh water during a 7-8 h 'low tide'.
(10) In the field, this phenomenon must occur at the beginning of high tide and must help to restore normal blood ABB in lugworms submitted to a moderate hyposmotic shock during low tide.
(11) Protein and iron concentrations and maximum combined oxygen concentration were measured in the blood of the lugworm Arenicola marina.
(12) Glycogen phosphorylase (GPase) from the body wall of the lugworm Arenicola marina (Annelida, Polychaeta) probably exists as a phospho-dephospho hybrid (GPase ab).
(13) The hybrid was identified by phosphorylation of purified lugworm GPase b (unphosphorylated form) with rabbit muscle GPase kinase and [gamma-32P]ATP.
(14) Lugworms were quite sensitive to the 1H-decoupling field used for obtaining the 13C(1H)-NMR spectra, especially at 11.7 T. Using bi-level composite-pulse decoupling and long relaxation delays, no tissue damage or stress-dependent phosphagen mobilization, as judged by 31P-NMR spectroscopy, was observed.
(15) On the other hand, in hypoxia lugworms the signal due to 13C-labelled glycogen decreased very rapidly proving a high turnover rate.
(16) The 13C of [1-13C]glucose, incorporated into glycogen, showed a very low turnover rate in normoxic lugworms as shown by two 13C(1H)-NMR spectra, one obtained 48 h after the other.
(17) Blood of the lugworm Arenicola marina studied in vitro behaved like a Rosenthal system: when temperature rose, pH decreased and PCO2 increased, whereas [HCO3] remained practically constant.
(18) This GPase ab produced by in vitro phosphorylation has shown similar dependences on AMP and caffeine as GPase extracted from the body wall of the lugworm.
(19) The kinetics of variations in the blood acid base balance (ABB) were investigated in a moderately euryhaline osmoconformer, the lugworm Arenicola marina (L.), exposed to natural and experimental hypo- or hyperosmotic shocks.
(20) Adenylate deaminase (AMP aminohydrolase, EC 184.108.40.206) from lugworm (Arenicola cristata) body-wall muscle was partially purified by extraction in KCl solutions and chromatography on phosphocellulose.
(n.) Any one of numerous species of annelids which burrow in the sand of the seashore.
(n.) Any species of annelids of the genus Sabellaria. They construct firm tubes of agglutinated sand on rocks and shells, and are sometimes destructive to oysters.
(n.) The chigoe, a species of flea.
(1) The three-dimensional structure of a sarcoplasmic Ca2(+)-binding protein from the sandworm Nereis diversicolor has been determined at 3.0 A resolution using multiple isomorphous replacement techniques.
(2) There is no clear evidence the latest flaw is being used by the same Sandworm hacker crew.
(3) Cyber intelligence firm iSight Partners warned last week that a separate but similar bug was being used in so-called ‘Sandworm’ attacks against the Ukrainian government, the European Union, Nato, French telecom firms and Polish energy suppliers.
(4) In particular, the Sandworm Team reportedly infected targets with malicious email attachments, largely PowerPoint files.
(5) The Dune references were so prevalent that iSight dubbed the hackers the “Sandworm Team” in reference to the huge creatures worshipped as gods on a desert planet where the series is set.
(6) The crystal structure of a sarcoplasmic Ca(2+)-binding protein (SCP) from the sandworm Nereis diversicolor has been determined and refined at 2.0 A resolution using restrained least-squares techniques.
(7) A group of hackers iSight called the Sandworm Team reportedly exploited this and other vulnerabilities from 2009 to steal diplomatic and intelligence documents, as well as data that could be used to penetrate further systems.
(8) The purified substance was highly active as an alarm chemosignal to earthworms (L. terrestris), but it did not elicit alarm responses from either sandworms (Nereis virens) or bloodworms (Glycera debranciata).
(9) We have determined the amino acid sequence of the SCBP from the sandworm Nereis diversicolor.
(10) This month, cyber-intelligence firm iSight Partners revealed that Russian hackers had exploited a bug in Microsoft Windows to spy on Nato computers in a five-year hacking campaign dubbed Sandworm , which also targeted Ukrainian computers.
(11) But Andrei Soldatov, a journalist and expert on Russia’s security services, said the available information was too sparse to definitively attribute the Sandworm campaign to the Russian government or conclude that Russian cyber-espionage was on the rise.
(12) Apparently the patch that Microsoft released for the Sandworm vulnerability didn’t properly patch it and this new vulnerability exploits that,” he said.
(13) ISight said the Sandworm Team’s campaign was part of a “growing drumbeat of cyber-espionage activity out of Russia”.
(14) The sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein (SCP) of the sandworm Nereis possesses three Ca2(+)-Mg2+ sites but no Ca2(+)-specific site.