(n.) Air infected with some noxious substance capable of engendering disease; esp., an unhealthy exhalation from certain soils, as marshy or wet lands, producing fevers; miasma.
(n.) A morbid condition produced by exhalations from decaying vegetable matter in contact with moisture, giving rise to fever and ague and many other symptoms characterized by their tendency to recur at definite and usually uniform intervals.
(1) The rise of malaria despite of control measures involves several factors: the house spraying is no more accepted by a large percentage of house holders and the alternative larviciding has only a limited efficacy; the houses of American Indians have no walls to be sprayed; there is a continuous introduction of parasites by migrants.
(2) Eighty-two per cent of patients with falciparum malaria had recently returned from Africa whereas 82% with vivax malaria had visited Asia.
(3) 236 patients with malaria were examined and treated.
(4) But both for malaria and Aids we’re seeing the tools that will let us do 95-100% reduction.
(5) In assessing damaged nets and curtains it must be recognised that anything less than the best vector control may have no appreciable impact on holoendemic malaria.
(6) Since then the intensive development of anti-malaria campaigns in urban areas over about ten years led temporarily to a considerable decrease in the level of endemicity, while in rural areas it remained unchanged.
(7) On land, the pits' stagnant pools of water become breeding grounds for dengue fever and malaria.
(8) immunoglobulin, purified from the plasma of local semi-immune blood donors, as an adjunct to standard treatment for cerebral malaria in Malawian children.
(9) Treatment with chloroquine and primaquine, together with packed red cell transfusions, was successful in eliminating both the malaria parasites and the leukaemoid blood picture.
(10) These C+ and R+ adherence properties of PE appear to mediate much of the pathogenesis of severe malaria infections, in part by blocking blood flow in microvessels.
(11) There was less of an increase following a blood meal infected with the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei.
(12) Clindamycin, a semi-synthetic antibiotic of the lincomycin family, at a dose of 450 mg eight-hourly for three days in adults cured five out of 10 patients moderately ill with chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria.
(13) This test by virtue of its high sensitivity and the facilities in processing a large number of specimens, can prove to be useful in endemic areas for the recognition of asymptomatic malaria and screening of blood donors.
(14) A small clinic consisting of 1 room decorated with pamphlets against AIDS, malaria, and other diseases was managed by the chief primary health care (PHC) assistant named Joseph.
(15) Prospects for involvement in malaria control are numerous, however there is need to enhance the existing BHW Program.
(16) This latter event might be one of the factors which results in a correlation of Burkitt's lymphoma with malaria endemic regions.
(17) Hemoglobin S (Hb S) was significantly more prevalent in adults resistant to malaria.
(18) The proportion of persons with P. malariae in this sample population, as determined by slide examination, appears to be the greatest ever reported for any area before the introduction of control measures.
(19) Other causes are malaria (21), undernutrition (12), meningitidis (10), diarrhea (9), pneumopathy (7), endogenous and obstetrical causes (24).
(20) An indirect fluorescent antibody test for glutaraldehyde-fixed, ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen was performed on admission sera from 45 patients with complicated cerebral Plasmodium falciparum malaria, 33 with uncomplicated cerebral malaria, 91 non-cerebral malaria patients, and 53 blood donors from a non-malarious area.
(a.) Of or pertaining to the fourth; occurring every fourth day, reckoning inclusively; as, a quartan ague, or fever.
(n.) An intermittent fever which returns every fourth day, reckoning inclusively, that is, one in which the interval between paroxysms is two days.
(n.) A measure, the fourth part of some other measure.
(1) Plasmodium brasilianum causes chronic quartan malaria in the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus, whereas Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is followed by an infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome that resolves.
(2) Clinical and experimental research on such cases has been carried out in the USSR with three strains of Plasmodium malariae isolated in the Soviet Union.It was found possible to cure induced quartan malaria with chloroquine diphosphate, mepacrine in association with plasmocide, and either proguanil or cycloquine with quinocide.Prevention of infection in persons receiving blood from a donor infected with P. malariae was achieved by administration 600 mg of cycloquine or chloroquine diphosphate before the blood transfusion.Since it has been shown that a donor with no history of malaria who has lived in an area where malaria had been endemic 20 years previously may have chronic symptomless parasitaemia and may transmit infection through his blood, the authors recommend that blood for transfusion or haemotherapy should not be taken from residents in former foci of quartan malaria.
(3) Chronic malarial nephrotic syndrome is specifically associated with quartan malaria.
(4) A splenectomized aotus monkey infected with human quartan malaria (Plasmodium malariae) developed oedema and proteinuria.
(5) The latter, though lacking the diffuse glomerular deposits of immunoglobulin described in quartan malarial nephropathy (Q.M.N.
(6) These results indicate that quartan injections of melatonin can suppress reproductive function in female hamsters, and that the effectiveness of the injections may be dependent upon the stage of the estrous cycle at which they are administered.
(7) (b) Chronic (progressive) lesions characteristic of quartan infections in man, developing slowly into a chronic stage with persistent proteinuria and gradually deteriorating renal function and hypertension.
(8) Chronic lesions, typical for quartan malaria, are more progressive and do not respond to antimalarials.
(9) Mostly subtropical malaria, less often tertiary malarial fever and mild tertiary malaria were diagnosed, and exceptionally quartan malaria.
(10) Quartan malarial infection causes an immune complex nephritis in some individuals, which, once established, is sustained by mechanisms not yet fully explained, but which probably involve autoimmune processes.
(11) Only two species of plasmodia have been found: the quartan-like Plasmodium brasilianum and the tertian-like P. simium, but the possible presence of other species is not excluded.
(12) The three most frequent histological diagnoses in 98 renal biopsies were membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (25), quartan malarial nephropathy (20), and proliferative glomerulonephritis (19): together they accounted for 65 per cent of all biopsies.
(13) For investigation of the role of the spleen in host defense and chronicity in quartan malaria, the course of Plasmodium inui infection was studied in 39 intact rhesus monkeys, 16 monkeys splenectomized before infection, and 22 monkeys splenectomized after infection.
(14) In one patient with quartan malaria infection, proteinuria rose as far as 432 mg per day.
(15) Evidence to support an immunologic pathogenesis of the renal lesions is provided by the presence of immunoglobulin, complement (C3) and quartan malarial antigen in biopsy specimens studied by immunofluorescence microscopy.
(16) This is the first report of quartan malaria from this area.
(17) This paper describes the characterization of proteinuria in Aotus monkeys infected with quartan malaria (Plasmodium brasilianum), using a micro-disc-electrophoresis system.
(18) Quartan malaria is also an insidious corruptor of health in childhood and commonly causes the nephrotic syndrome.
(19) Chronic quartan malarial infection has been established in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).
(20) It would appear that quartan malaria causes an immune complex nephritis in some individuals that, once established, is sustained by mechanisms not yet fully explained but which may involve an autoimmune process.