(n.) One of several species of small rodents of the genus Mus and allied genera, larger than mice, that infest houses, stores, and ships, especially the Norway, or brown, rat (M. decumanus), the black rat (M. rattus), and the roof rat (M. Alexandrinus). These were introduced into America from the Old World.
(n.) A round and tapering mass of hair, or similar material, used by women to support the puffs and rolls of their natural hair.
(n.) One who deserts his party or associates; hence, in the trades, one who works for lower wages than those prescribed by a trades union.
(v. i.) In English politics, to desert one's party from interested motives; to forsake one's associates for one's own advantage; in the trades, to work for less wages, or on other conditions, than those established by a trades union.
(v. i.) To catch or kill rats.
(1) All rats were examined in the conscious, unrestrained state 12 wk after induction of diabetes or acidified saline (pH 4.5) injection.
(2) It was tested for recovery and separation from other selenium moieties present in urine using both in vivo-labeled rat urine and human urine spiked with unlabeled TMSe.
(3) It is supposed that delta-sleep peptide along with other oligopeptides is one of the factors determining individual animal resistance to emotional stress, which is supported by significant delta-sleep peptide increase in hypothalamus in stable rats.
(4) The microsomal preparations from untreated Syrian golden hamster livers exhibited higher activities of N-demethylation towards the macrolide antibiotics, erythromycin and troleandomycin, than those from untreated and phenobarbital-treated rats.
(5) Phospholipid methylation in human EGMs is distinctly different from that in rat EGMs (Hirata and Axelrod 1980) in that the human activity is not Mg++-dependent, and apparent methyltransferase I activity is located in the external membrane surface.
(6) Biochemical, immunocytochemical and histochemical methods were used to study the effect of chronic acetazolamide treatment on carbonic anhydrase (CA) isoenzymes in the rat kidney.
(7) In conclusion, in S-rats a glucose-stimulated insulin release is accompanied by an increase in IBF, but this is not observed in P-rats.
(8) Competition with the labelled 10B12 MAb for binding to the purified antigen was demonstrated in sera of tumor-bearing and immune rats.
(9) Nutritionally rehabilitated animals had similar numbers of nucleoli to control rats.
(10) This study examined the [3H]5-HT-releasing properties of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and related agents, all of which cause significant release of [3H]5-HT from rat brain synaptosomes.
(11) Addition of phospholipase A2 from Vipera russelli venom led to a significant increase in the activity of guanylate cyclase in various rat organs.
(12) Spontaneous locomotor activity was lower in naloxone-infused rats on day 3 only.
(13) The LD50 of the following metal-binding chelating drugs, EDTA, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), hydroxyethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA), cyclohexanediaminotetraacetic acid (CDTA) and triethylenetetraminehexaacetic acid (TTHA) was evaluated in terms of mortality in rats after intraperitoneal administration and was found to be in the order: CDTA greater than EDTA greater than DTPA greater than TTHA greater than HEDTA.
(14) We have investigated a physiological role of endogenous insulin on exocrine pancreatic secretion stimulated by a liquid meal as well as exogenous secretin and cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) in conscious rats.
(15) The subcellular distribution of sialyltransferase and its product of action, sialic acid, was investigated in the undifferentiated cells of the rat intestinal crypts and compared with the pattern observed in the differentiated cells present in the surface epithelium.
(16) However, the groups often paused less and responded faster than individual rats working under identical conditions.
(17) After 55 days of unrestricted food availability the body weight of the neonatally deprived rats was approximately 15% lower than that of the controls.
(18) To examine the central nervous system regulation of duodenal bicarbonate secretion, an animal model was developed that allowed cerebroventricular and intravenous injections as well as collection of duodenal perfusates in awake, freely moving rats.
(19) In the present investigation we monitored the incorporation of [14C] from [U-14C]glucose into various rat brain glycolytic intermediates of conscious and pentobarbital-anesthetized animals.
(20) Gel filtration of the 40,000 rpm supernatant fraction of a homogenate of rat cerebral cortex on a Sepharose 6B column yielded two fractions: fraction II with the "Ca(2+) plus Mg(2+)-dependent" phosphodiesterase activity and fraction III containing its modulator.
(n.) Any one of numerous species of terrestrial air-breathing gastropods belonging to the genus Helix and many allied genera of the family Helicidae. They are abundant in nearly all parts of the world except the arctic regions, and feed almost entirely on vegetation; a land snail.
(n.) Any gastropod having a general resemblance to the true snails, including fresh-water and marine species. See Pond snail, under Pond, and Sea snail.
(n.) Hence, a drone; a slow-moving person or thing.
(n.) A spiral cam, or a flat piece of metal of spirally curved outline, used for giving motion to, or changing the position of, another part, as the hammer tail of a striking clock.
(n.) A tortoise; in ancient warfare, a movable roof or shed to protect besiegers; a testudo.
(n.) The pod of the sanil clover.
(1) The snail host was a tetraploid form of Bulinus (n = 36).
(2) Between the 24th and 29th day mature daughter sporocysts with fully developed cercariae ready to emerge, or already emerged, could be seen in the digestive gland of the snail.
(3) omega-Conotoxin GVIA is a peptide purified from the venom of the marine snail, Conus geographus, that specifically blocks voltage-sensitive calcium channels in neurons.
(4) Measurable quantities of temefos were found in the snails within 1 day after the first treatment with a 2% granular formulation but 3 weeks elapsed before uptake occurred following treatment with a temefos emulsion.
(5) In the presence of ATP-Mg2+, the enzymes were rapidly phosphorylated in vitro by the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase purified from snail muscle and also by the C subunit of protein kinase from bovine heart.
(6) A wide but discontinuous distribution of the snail on the north coast of Haiti is confirmed (no autochthonous infections with S. mansoni have been reported).
(7) The cercariae shed from the snails were again exposed to several species of fresh water snails in order to observe metacercarial formation in the snails and their infectivity to final hosts.
(8) These data confirm that both eggs and miracidia secrete proteinases which are capable of degrading at least the glycoprotein components of extracellular matrix to facilitate their migration through intestinal wall or penetration of snail tissue.
(9) When used in snail neurones such electrodes gave very similar pHi values to those recorded simultaneously by recessed-tip glass micro-electrodes.
(10) The whole body withdrawal reaction of freshwater snail Planorbarius corneus consists of two phases.
(11) An explanation of this in terms of terrestrial snail (intermediate host) populations and a suggestion for the possible use of these data in developing a predictive model for forecasting lungworm levels for use in in bighorn sheep management are given.
(12) Aridanin and bayluscide produced significant reductions in the glycogen content of B. glabrata, but a significant decrease in the protein content of the snails was not apparent until after 4 weeks of continuous exposure.
(13) The rarer of the two ChE phenotypes in the uninfected sample (29.4%) was present in 100% of the 17 infected snails examined.
(14) Using Ca-sensitive fluorescent probe (fura-2) Sr and Ba absorption by intracellular organelles after cell loading by these cations and their effect on Ca release from intracellular stores were studied on isolated snail neurons.
(15) Schistosomin is produced in the central nervous system of the snail and released upon parasitic infection.
(16) In the present study, buccal ganglion neurons 5 were examined following exposure of animals to conditions that induce estivation, a behavioral state exhibited by these freshwater snails in nature.
(17) The effects of gamma-globulins to brain specific nonhistone chromatin proteins (BSNCP-3.5;-3.6) on conditioned food avoidance behaviour (carrot or apple) was studied in the garden snail.
(18) Tilts of the freshwater snail Planorbarius corneus, resulting in statocyst receptor stimulation, induced the defensive reaction including pulling down of the shell, shortening of the foot, inhibition of locomotion and feeding.
(19) Several biological and physical factors which may influence infection of Biomphalaria glabrata snails with the first stage larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis were studied.
(20) In both juvenile and adult pond snails, LS1+ (LS1 positive) hemocytes have the morphology of immature cells.