(adv.) By that; by that means; in consequence of that.
(adv.) Annexed to that.
(adv.) Thereabout; -- said of place, number, etc.
(1) These channels may, at least in some cases, be responsible for the generation of pacemaker depolarizations, thereby regulating firing behaviour.
(2) The transmission of alcoholism and its effects are thereby lessened for future generations of children of alcoholics.
(3) The mechanism by which gp55 causes increased erythroblastosis and ultimately leukaemia is unknown, but a reasonable suggestion is that gp55 can mimic the action of erythropoietin by binding to its receptor (Epo-R), thereby triggering prolonged proliferation of erythroid cells.
(4) The following model is suggested: exogenous ATP interacts with a membrane receptor in the presence of Ca2+, a cascade of events occurs which mobilizes intracellular calcium, thereby increasing the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration which consequently opens the calcium-activated K+ channels, which then leads to a change in membrane potential.
(5) We determined to further clarify the mechanism of this transmural coronary "steal" employing intracoronary DP administration, thereby avoiding systemic hypotension.
(6) By this action, oxytocin is believed to increase the probability of successful regenerative spikes and thereby initiate electrical activity in quiescent preparations, increase the frequency of burst discharges, the number of spikes in each burst, and the amplitude of spikes in individual cells.
(7) The stronger negative potentials may weaken electrostatic receptor interactions and, thereby, cause the trans(E)-isomers to be less active than cis(Z)-isomers.
(8) The peptide selectively inhibits certain postsynaptic cells but not others and thereby allows the sensory neurons to achieve target-specific synaptic actions.
(9) Superior memory for the word list was found when the odor present during the relearning session was the same one that had been present at the time of initial learning, thereby demonstrating context-dependent memory.
(10) In addition, the menisci increase the femorotibial contact area, thereby relieving some of the pressure.
(11) Because haptenated cells can induce immunity if injected subcutaneously or into cyclophosphamide-pretreated recipients (thereby avoiding the induction of suppressor cells), we suggest that the activation of contrasuppressor cells by antigen-antibody complexes overrides suppressive influences in the host, allowing immunity to become dominant.
(12) This was overcome by using a continuous subcutaneous infusion pump which also enabled the effective daily dosage to be reduced and thereby adverse reactions to be avoided.
(13) These results suggest that CPZ interacts with smg p21B, smg GDS, or both, and thereby inhibits the smg GDS action, and that CPZ also interacts with the acidic phospholipids and thereby counteracts their inhibitory effect on the smg GDS action.
(14) Use of sunglasses that block all ultraviolet radiation and severely attenuate high-energy visible radiation will slow the pace of ocular deterioration and delay the onset of age-related disease, thereby reducing its prevalence.
(15) In recent years, apart from these well known risks, the immuno-suppressive effect of blood transfusions has been observed and thereby the possible adverse influence on the prognosis in cases of malignant disease.
(16) From this information, it would appear that it is possible that the mechanism for the prolonged effect of acupuncture in treating chronic pain is that the repeated activation of the physiological systems by which acupuncture inhibits pain, by the repeated acupuncture treatments, trains the body to continue this activity and thereby maintains the pain relief for a period of time after the last treatment.
(17) Among these are DNA exo- and endonucleases and DNA glycosylases which remove oxidatively damaged portions of the DNA molecule, thereby initiating excision-repair.
(18) Taken together, these findings indicate that IGFs can stabilize neuronal calcium homeostasis and thereby protect against hypoglycemic damage.
(19) Drugs known to improve memory, including physostigmine, pramiracetam and the muscarinic agonists, oxotremorine and RS 86, selectively induced analgesia in rats subjected to test before the shock plus the shock, thereby supporting a hypothesis of avoidance learning.
(20) The increased volume of flowing blood and increased stroke volume in athletes probably allows for a reduction in flow velocity and thereby a reduction in kinetic energy.
(adv.) At which place; where.
(conj.) Considering that; it being the case that; since; -- used to introduce a preamble which is the basis of declarations, affirmations, commands, requests, or like, that follow.
(conj.) When in fact; while on the contrary; the case being in truth that; although; -- implying opposition to something that precedes; or implying recognition of facts, sometimes followed by a different statement, and sometimes by inferences or something consequent.
(1) This trend appeared to reverse itself in the low dose animals after 3 hr, whereas in the high dose group, cardiac output continued to decline.
(2) Patients with papillary carcinoma with a good cell-mediated immune response occurred with much lower infiltration of the tumor boundary with lymphocyte whereas the follicular carcinoma less cell-mediated immunity was associated with dense lymphocytic infiltration, suggesting the biological relevance of lymphocytic infiltration may be different for the two histologic variants.
(3) There was appreciable variation in toothbrush wear among subjects, some reducing their brush to a poor state in 2 weeks whereas with others the brush was rated as "good" after 10 weeks.
(4) The most actively proliferating region of the excurrent duct system is zone 3 of the epididymis, whereas the least active region is the ductuli efferentes.
(5) The newborn with critical AS typically presents with severe cardiac failure and the infant with moderate failure, whereas children may be asymptomatic.
(6) F(420) is photolabile aerobically in neutral and basic solutions, whereas the acid-stable chromophore is not photolabile under these conditions.
(7) Application of 40 microM NiCl2 reversibly blocked It while leaving Is intact, whereas 20 microM CdCl2 reversibly blocked Is, but not It.
(8) When micF was cloned into a high-copy-number plasmid it repressed ompF gene expression, whereas when cloned into a low-copy-number plasmid it did not.
(9) Ethanol and L-ethionine induce acute steatosis without necrosis, whereas azaserine, carbon tetrachloride, and D-galactosamine are known to produce steatosis with varying degrees of hepatic necrosis.
(10) Whereas strain Ga-1 was practically avirulent for mice, strain KL-1 produced death by 21 days in 50% of the mice inoculated.
(11) Eighty-two per cent of patients with falciparum malaria had recently returned from Africa whereas 82% with vivax malaria had visited Asia.
(12) The results indicate that OA-bearing macrophages primed T cells and generated helper T cells, whereas the culture of normal lymphocytes with soluble OA in the absence of macrophages generated suppressor T cells.
(13) After midazolam infusion, there was a 50% decrease in amplitude of P3 in response to target tones (P less than 0.006), whereas N3 latency increased by 40 ms (P less than 0.05).
(14) Maximal yields of lipid and aflatoxin were obtained with 30% glucose, whereas mold growth, expressed as dry weight, was maximal when the medium contained 10% glucose.
(15) Epidermal growth factor reduced plating efficiency by about 50% for A431 cells in different cell cycle phases whereas a slight increase in plating efficiency was seen for SiHa cells.
(16) Peak Expiratory Flow and Forced Expiratory Mean Flows in the ranges 0-25%, 25-50% and 50-75% of Forced Vital Capacity were significantly reduced in animals exposed to gasoline exhaust fumes, whereas the group exposed to ethanol exhaust fumes did not differ from the control group.
(17) When the eye was dissected into anterior uveal, scleral, and retinal complexes, prostaglandin D2 was formed in the highest degree in all the complexes, whereas prostaglandin E2 and F2 alpha formation was specific to given ocular regions.
(18) This mAb inhibited monocyte binding of both soluble FITC-labeled IgA and IgA-coated E, whereas it did not inhibit IgG binding.
(19) Chloroquine induced large cytoplasmic vacuoles, whereas the other drugs (quinacrine, 4,4'-diethylaminoethoxyhexestrol, chlorphentermine, iprindole, 1-chloro-amitriptyline, clomipramine) caused formation of lamellated or crystalloid inclusions as usually seen in drug-induced lipidosis.
(20) hypoglossal nucleus), whereas in other areas the angiotensinogen gene was expressed only in a certain population of glial cells.