(conj.) Grant all this; be it that; supposing that; notwithstanding; though.
(1) Although the mean values for all hemodynamic variables between the two placebo periods were minimally changed, the differences in individual patients were striking.
(2) Although Jeggo's Chinese hamster ovary cells were more responsive to mAMSA, novo still abrogated mAMSA toxicity in the mutant cells as well as in the parental Chinese hamster ovary cells 2,4-Dinitrophenol acted similarly to novo with respect to mAMSA killing, but neither compound reduced the ATP content of V79 cells.
(3) Although measurements are easily obtained with a tape measure, the validity of these measurements is not known.
(4) Ursodeoxycholate was the only dihydroxy bile salt which was able to solubilize phospholipid (although not cholesterol) below the critical micellar concentration.
(5) Although solely nociresponsive neurons are clearly likely to fill a role in the processing and signalling of pain in the conscious central nervous system, the way in which such useful specificity could be conveyed by multireceptive neurons is difficult to appreciate.
(6) Although antihistamines are widely used for symptomatic treatment of seasonal (allergic) rhinitis, the role of histamines in the pathogenesis of infectious rhinitis is not clear.
(7) Historical analysis shows that institutions and special education services spring from common, although not identical, societal and philosophical forces.
(8) Radioligand binding studies revealed the presence of a single class of high-affinity (Kd = 2-6 X 10(-10) M) binding sites for ET-1 in both cells, although the maximal binding capacity of cardiac receptor was about 6- to 12-fold greater than that of vascular receptor.
(9) Although lorazepam and haloperidol produced an equivalent mean decrease in aggression, significantly more subjects who received lorazepam had a greater decrease in aggression ratings than haloperidol recipients; this effect was independent of sedation.
(10) Thus, our study confirmed that male subjects with a history of testicular maldescent have an increased risk for testis cancer, although the magnitude of this risk was lower than suggested previously.
(11) Although MR imaging can accurately show high-grade chondromalacia patellae, it is less accurate in the detection of low-grade disease.
(12) Regression curves indicate that although all three types of pulmonary edema can be characterized by slightly different slopes, the differences are statistically insignificant.
(13) According to some reports as many as 30 people were killed in the explosion, although that figure could not be independently confirmed.
(14) Although the longest period required for resolving weakness was three days, the MRI, the CT and the electroencephalogram revealed no significant abnormality.
(15) By the 1860s, French designs were using larger front wheels and steel frames, which although lighter were more rigid, leading to its nickname of “boneshaker”.
(16) Certainly, Saunders did not land a single blow that threatened to stop his opponent, although he took quite a few himself that threatened his titles in the final few rounds.
(17) The Bohr and Root effects are absent, although specific amino acid residues, considered responsible of most of these functions, are conserved in the sequence, thus posing new questions about the molecular basis of these mechanisms.
(18) Addition of extracellular mevalonate led to a concentration-dependent fall in both processes, although a higher concentration was required to produce the same effect on LDL degradation as on HMG-CoA reductase activity.
(19) Although the relative contributions of different fuels varies greatly in different organisms, in none is there a simple reliance on stored ATP.
(20) The base materials caused more pulpal inflammation than the control material, Kalzinol, although by an indirect mechanism.
(adv.) By which; -- used relatively.
(adv.) By what; how; -- used interrogatively.
(1) Together these observations suggest that cytotactin is an endogenous cell surface modulatory protein and provide a possible mechanism whereby cytotactin may contribute to pattern formation during development, regeneration, tumorigenesis, and wound healing.
(2) The method described uses film DOT-I and DOT-II by Dupont, whereby the exposure of the step wedge takes place on a linear accelerator with a photo energy of 10 MeV.
(3) The present data support the hypothesis whereby weakly oncogenic B-ecotropic viruses similar to those activated by radiation might be involved in the development of TL.
(4) Indications of precautions to be taken are defined and suggestions are drawn up whereby residual laxity in extension may be limited.
(5) Mechanisms are suggested whereby rudimentary appetitive programs already encoded along facing dendrite membrane pairs within the specialized intrafascicular milieu, may trigger and control nipple search and suckling in the still blind and only primitively mobile neonate.
(6) Because the mechanism whereby Shigella dysenteriae I enterotoxin induces intestinal secretion is unclear, the effect of this toxin on adenylate cyclase activity in rabbit ileal mucosa was studied under various in vitro and in vivo conditions.
(7) Completely unknown is the mechanism whereby NADH oxidation and growth or growth control may be coupled.
(8) Possible mechanisms whereby proteolytic cleavage of VP2 may enhance the infectivity and HA activity of BTV 20 are discussed.
(9) A simplified procedure is described whereby tissue is removed via a posterior eyelid approach so that the eyelid may be tightened both horizontally and vertically, thus inverting the punctum and fixating it in the lacrimal lake.
(10) The authors describe several recent court cases in which judges have ignored or distorted acceptable clinical practices, conceivably creating a new liability standard whereby a tragic outcome is considered the result of failure to apply appropriate judgment.
(11) Since the temperature of the monkey was unchanged as long as the physiological ratio of sodium to calcium in the perfusion fluid remained constant, we conclude that the balance between these two essential cations within the brain stem could determine the neural mechanism whereby the set-point for body temperature of the primate is established.
(12) Physical disruption of the gut mucosal barrier appears to be the primary mechanism whereby endotoxin promotes bacterial translocation.
(13) That does not translate magically into a conflict of interest whereby the interests of these lawyers is suddenly contrary to those of the defendants,” Ryan argued to Pohl.
(14) Our aim was to determine the mechanism whereby oligohydroamnios causes reduced fetal lung expansion and eventual lung hypoplasia.
(15) This requires multiple insulin injections, whereby 60 to 70% of the total daily insulin amount are administered as preprandial boli of short or intermediate acting insulin.
(16) That would mark a controversial break from its existing policy, whereby the ECB offsets bond purchases by draining liquidity from the system in separate operations.
(17) Chilcot has now embarked on the “Maxwellisation process”, whereby those the inquiry intends to criticise will be sent draft passages of the report for comment.
(18) The mechanism whereby deferoxamine (DF) inhibits the growth of malaria parasites was studied in rats infected with Plasmodium berghei.
(19) K+ release from 2-10 min minus initial K+ uptake) increased from 0.1 to 2.2 mumol X g-1 liver, whereby simultaneously the alanine tissue level rose from 6.8 to 13.3 mumol X g-1 (corresponding to an increase of the intracellular alanine concentration from about 12 to 25 mM) in presence of aminooxyacetate.
(20) Ultrastructural investigations involved a novel method whereby thick sections of gluteraldehyde-fixed material were cut on a vibratome and then labelled using slight modifications of a standard unlabelled antibody-enzyme (PAP) technique, before further processing.