(1) In the present study, buccal ganglion neurons 5 were examined following exposure of animals to conditions that induce estivation, a behavioral state exhibited by these freshwater snails in nature.
(2) Conditioned medium promoted sprouting by intact neurons in vitro in a manner quantitatively and qualitatively similar to that observed in vivo during estivation.
(3) Standard bicarbonate ranged from a low of 8.6 mMol-L-1 (P plasma) at pH 7.5 in an awake fish to 49.6 mMol-L-1 (P) in an estivating fish.
(4) Blood respiratory properties have been studied in awake and estivating African lungfish, Protopterus amphibius.
(5) The P50 value in blood from awake fish was 33 mm Hg at pH 7.5 compared to 9 mm Hg for the estivating fish.
(6) The important involution of the pineal gland of Glis glis and Eliomys quercinus during the months of july and august belongs to a polyglandular involution (anterior lobe of the hypophysis, male and female genital glands) characteristic of estivation.
(7) The concentration of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin did not change in estivation; however, a significant elevation of norepinephrine in the diencephalon and dopamine in the telencephalon was observed in starvation.
(8) Surprisingly, sprouting activity occurred in some neurons (31%) in normal animals, this being transiently elevated (to 71%) after 4 days of estivation.
(9) The oxygen-binding characteristics and the multiplicity of the stripped hemoglobiin from active lungfish Protopterus amphibius, are the same as in specimens that have been estivating for about 30 months, showing that alteration in the hemoglobin molecules is not involved in the earlier reported increase in oxygen affinity of whole blood during estivation (Johansen et al., '76).
(10) Starvation and estivation were associated with significant declines in the protein content of the diencephalon and medulla.
(11) The taxi drivers' leader, Alain Estival, has responded that there'll be uproar if the number exceeds 400.
(12) Mr Estival is also concerned that creating 1,500 new cabbies will severely dent the market in taxi licences.
(13) First, blood from estivated animals was tested for trophic activity.
(14) Group 1 was fed normally, group 2 was starved while aquatic, and group 3 was allowed to enter into a state of estivation.
(15) Elasmobranch fishes, the coelacanth, estivating lungfish, amphibians, and mammals synthesize urea by the ornithine-urea cycle; by comparison, urea synthetic activity is generally insignificant in teleostean fishes.
(16) The Na+ concentration was the same for active and estivating frogs.
(17) Estivation (shallow torpor) in the round-tailed ground squirrel (Citellus tereticaudus) is entered through electrophysiologically defined states of sleep.
(18) Annual variations of the northern limit of Anopheles arabiensis, in the Sahelo-Saharan region including some oasis, are related to temporary breeding places produced by seasonal rainfall, after estivation during the dry season or after a long migration with the wind.
(19) These mechanisms, their interactions, and the regulatory signals (e.g., second messenger molecules, pH) that coordinate them form a common molecular basis for metabolic depression in anoxia-tolerant vertebrates (goldfish, turtles) and invertebrates (marine molluscs), hibernation in small mammals, and estivation in land snails and terrestrial toads.
(20) Hematocrit, O2 capacity and blood hemoglobin concentration increased by about 50% during estivation.
(n.) Loss of motion, or of the motion; a state of inactivity with partial or total insensibility; numbness.
(n.) Dullness; sluggishness; inactivity; as, a torpor of the mental faculties.
(1) After arousal from torpor, within 2 h dendrites completely restored their structure.
(2) Bats have maximum life spans a minimum of 3 times those of nonflying eutherians--a trend resulting from neither low basal metabolic rate, the ability to enter torpor, nor large relative brain size.
(3) Three years of frustration at the torpor he found at the centre of the party spills out.
(4) Experiments with temperature and torpor and castration did not alter the annual did not alter the rhythm...
(5) Dietary lipids strongly influence the pattern of torpor and the body lipid composition of mammalian hibernators.
(6) Testosterone and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone administration totally inhibited daily torpor in hamsters which were exposed to short days.
(7) At 10 wk of age, group-housed glutamate-obese mice exhibited nocturnal and early diurnal torpor, i.e., they thermoregulated at a lower than normal body temperature.
(8) Estradiol inhibited torpor to a greater extent in intact and ovariectomized female hamsters hibernating in long days than those in short days, suggesting an effect of photoperiod on responsiveness to estradiol.
(9) Selective feeding and incorporation of high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids into tissues and cell membranes may be an important preparation for hibernation of E. amoenus which lowers its body temperature during torpor to about 0 degrees C.
(10) Like many mammalian heterotherms, the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, breathes intermittently during torpor.
(11) Just as Everton’s bid to snap out of their torpor was gaining momentum, however, it was curtailed by a third United goal that killed the contest.
(12) Water independence is achieved through efficient renal function while low rates of energy usage and torpor are further effective in reducing overall water requirements.
(13) The object of the present study was to investigate whether these diet-induced physiological and biochemical changes also occur in species that show shallow, daily torpor.
(14) Nevertheless, decreased testosterone secretion alone is not a sufficient condition for induction of daily torpor, since torpor was rarely observed in hamsters exposed to long days, even after castration.
(15) Hormone levels were generally lower in hibernators sampled during bouts of torpor than during bouts of spontaneous arousal from torpor.
(16) It is concluded that there is an inverse temperature effect that minimizes fuel usage during torpor.
(17) In addition, carbohydrate levels are significantly lower, whereas fatty acid and ketone levels are significantly higher during torpor.
(18) After the last (terminal) arousal from torpor, T levels were moderately elevated for 4 wk and maximal for the next 6 wk before they returned to basal values.
(19) The durations of the intervals of torpor and euthermia during mammalian hibernation were found to be dependent on body mass.
(20) Castration influenced certain aspects of the daily torpor display.