(1) In each sheep there was a significant negative correlation between the glucose and corticosteroid concentrations in both maternal and fetal plasma, and there were positive correlations between the maternal and fetal plasma concentrations of glucose, and between the glucose and fructose concentrations of fetal plasma.
(2) This is interpreted to mean that the release of fructose from the central complex is faster than the isomerization of the E-NADH complex.
(3) It is suggested the participation of glycogen (starch) in the self-oscillatory mechanism of the futile cycle formed by the phosphofructokinase and fructose bisphosphatase reactions may give rise to oscillations with the period of 10(3)-10(4) min, which may serve as the basis for the cell clock.
(4) Under anaerobic conditions, glycolytic flux was decreased but this did not appear to be the result of inhibition of phosphofructokinase, since the concentrations of both substrates, fructose 6-phosphate and ATP, were decreased.
(5) The intracellular levels of the 6-phosphates of glucose, fructose, and mannose did not increase in the presence of 2-dG.
(6) A mutant delta ptsH of Escherichia coli was used to obtain a mutation which damages a function of cytoplasmic specific component of the fructose phosphotransferase system--FPr protein.
(7) The concentration dependences of response of frog tongue to D-fructose, D-glucose, and sucrose were almost the same, D-galactose, however, elicited a much larger response in comparison with the other sugars in the whole range of concentrations examined.
(8) Fructose bisphosphatase, a gluconeogenic enzyme, is high along the major portion of the proximal tubule but plummets along the final millimeter of S3.
(9) Linear relationships were also observed between delta psi m and the rate of formation of lactate in cells incubated with fructose and in hepatocytes from fed rats.
(10) From the different shapes of the scattering curves of the native phosphofructokinase at pH 7.5 in the presence of 15 mM ATP and of the cross-linked tetramer or octamer, it can be inferred that the shapes of the protomers are different: in the presence of ATP the protomers are elongated, having an axial ratio of 1.8 to 2.0; the cross-linked state reveals a spherical protomer of radius 33.0 A, similar to that of the native enzyme at pH 7.5 in the presence of fructose 6-phosphate or fructose 1,6-bisphosphate.
(11) Radioactive lactic acid was detected in the drained perfusion solution with D(U-14C)-glucose, but not when D(U-14C)-fructose was used.
(12) In a complete system, consisting of a dye-donor couple, ferredoxin, thioredoxin and ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase, light activation of purified spinach fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase was observed in vitro.
(13) On incubation for 90 min with fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, about 80% of the substrate appears with an almost linear time dependence as fructose.
(14) Its director, Susanne Logstrup, warned that replacing glucose and sucrose with "healthier" fructose might make people think a drink or food was less fattening.
(15) In a previous paper, the main mutagenic compound isolated from the model reaction system D-fructose, DL-alanine and creatinine was tentatively identified as 4,8-DiMeIQx.
(16) This was associated with an increase in intracellular glucose and decreases in aortic smooth muscle sorbitol and fructose consistent with an inhibition of aldose reductase.
(17) Production of radioactive CO2 from 14C-fructose administered intraperitoneally was studied in 18 male Wistar rats given food containing saccharose with calorific value of 0-56%.
(18) Since intestinal sodium absorption was so enhanced by an actively transported sugar, fructose and galactose perfusion fluids were prepared, and it was found that fructose was less well absorbed than glucose or galactose: in general, the results with these sugars were consistent with the sodium-dependent active transport of galactose and the passive transport of fructose, unrelated to sodium transport.
(19) Administration of different brain fuels--glucose, mannose, fructose, or the ketone beta-hydroxybutyrate--reduced hippocampal damage induced by coadministration of GCs and either of 2 different neurotoxins (kainic acid and 3-acetylpyridine).
(20) The concentrations of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate that gave 50% inhibition of rat muscle and liver enzymes were 6.3 and 1.5 microM, respectively.
(n.) A sirupy variety of sugar, rarely obtained crystallized, occurring widely in honey, ripe fruits, etc., and hence called also fruit sugar. It is called levulose, because it rotates the plane of polarization to the left.
(1) The 1:1:1 glucose-levulose-xylitol ratio of the caloric carrier proved to be a favourable combination with respect to metabolic behaviour and the necessary daily supply of calories.
(2) In media enriched with 5% ovine serum, 5% bovine serum and 10% yeast extract, H. somnus fermented glucose, levulose, maltose, mannitol, mannose, sorbitol, trehalose and xylose, but failed to ferment arabinose, dulcitol, galactose, inositol, lactose, raffinose, rhamnose, salicin and sucrose.
(3) In intact rats fed the synthetic diet containing 30% each of glucose, lactose, galactose, sucrose and levulose for an interval of 10 days, the wet and dry liver--body weight ratios were significantly elevated only with the last two sugars but liver glycogen was increased in each instance.
(4) Less than 1.5% of the infused levulose, 2.0% of glucose and 2.4-4.1% of xylitol were found in urine.
(5) The state of the parenchymal organs is necessary to be followed up carefully in case of acute acetone intoxications and a timely treatment with hepato- and nephroprotective drugs in large doses to be applied: glucocorticoids, glucose and levulose solutions, cocarboxylase, lipovitan, vitamin "C", "B1", "B2", "B12", calcium gluconate.
(6) Glucose, levulose, sucrose, glycerol and several polyols are so detected.
(7) The drug (or placebo) was diluted in 500 ml of 10% Levulose, and administered intravenously; 1000 gamma of B12 vitamin were added to each bottle.
(8) In combination with the amino-acids we received a ratio of 1:1:1 for glucose, levulose and xylitole.
(9) Group II: Solvents displaying medium stabilizing properties (dextran and levulose solutions).
(10) All strains ferment glucose, levulose, and maltose and reduce nitrate to nitrite.
(11) The biochemical study on 170 of the strains have revealed that: more of them, belong to the 1 st, 4 c, and 5 th serotype break down dextrose, trehalose, levulose, salycin, esculin, ramnose, and glycerin.
(12) Naftidrofuryl provoked an increase in cutaneous partial oxygen pressure of 26.8 to 36.4 mm Hg (p less than 0.001) whereas no significant change was noted after 5% levulose.
(13) A significant correlation was found between the virulence of the fluid cultures for mice or guinea pigs and the coagulation of milk, production of gas (in deep agar), hydrogen sulfide production, and fermentation of glucose, sucrose, maltose, and levulose.
(14) All isolates failed to utilize arginine, lysine, ornithine or tryptophane but produced acid from glucose, galactose, levulose, maltose, melibiose, starch, and sucrose.
(15) Of the carbohydrate solutions, 5% levulose, 5% levulose+5% glucose and 10% sucrose increased the extent of liver regeneration as was also the case with the synthetic diet suplemented with 30 and 60% glucose, 30 and 60% levulose, 30% levulose+30% glucose, 30% each of galactose and the arabinoglactan, Stractan and 60% each of sucrose, honey and unsulphured molasses.
(16) 80 g L-amino acids and about 2,500 kcal in the form of a glucose-levulose-xylitol mixture together with electrolytes and trace elements were infused daily.
(17) The antagonistic effects of levulose and pyritinol against acute ethanol intoxication were confirmed.