(conj.) Considering that; it being the case that; since; -- used to introduce a preamble which is the basis of declarations, affirmations, commands, requests, or like, that follow.
(conj.) When in fact; while on the contrary; the case being in truth that; although; -- implying opposition to something that precedes; or implying recognition of facts, sometimes followed by a different statement, and sometimes by inferences or something consequent.
(1) This trend appeared to reverse itself in the low dose animals after 3 hr, whereas in the high dose group, cardiac output continued to decline.
(2) Patients with papillary carcinoma with a good cell-mediated immune response occurred with much lower infiltration of the tumor boundary with lymphocyte whereas the follicular carcinoma less cell-mediated immunity was associated with dense lymphocytic infiltration, suggesting the biological relevance of lymphocytic infiltration may be different for the two histologic variants.
(3) There was appreciable variation in toothbrush wear among subjects, some reducing their brush to a poor state in 2 weeks whereas with others the brush was rated as "good" after 10 weeks.
(4) The most actively proliferating region of the excurrent duct system is zone 3 of the epididymis, whereas the least active region is the ductuli efferentes.
(5) The newborn with critical AS typically presents with severe cardiac failure and the infant with moderate failure, whereas children may be asymptomatic.
(6) F(420) is photolabile aerobically in neutral and basic solutions, whereas the acid-stable chromophore is not photolabile under these conditions.
(7) Application of 40 microM NiCl2 reversibly blocked It while leaving Is intact, whereas 20 microM CdCl2 reversibly blocked Is, but not It.
(8) When micF was cloned into a high-copy-number plasmid it repressed ompF gene expression, whereas when cloned into a low-copy-number plasmid it did not.
(9) Ethanol and L-ethionine induce acute steatosis without necrosis, whereas azaserine, carbon tetrachloride, and D-galactosamine are known to produce steatosis with varying degrees of hepatic necrosis.
(10) Whereas strain Ga-1 was practically avirulent for mice, strain KL-1 produced death by 21 days in 50% of the mice inoculated.
(11) Eighty-two per cent of patients with falciparum malaria had recently returned from Africa whereas 82% with vivax malaria had visited Asia.
(12) The results indicate that OA-bearing macrophages primed T cells and generated helper T cells, whereas the culture of normal lymphocytes with soluble OA in the absence of macrophages generated suppressor T cells.
(13) After midazolam infusion, there was a 50% decrease in amplitude of P3 in response to target tones (P less than 0.006), whereas N3 latency increased by 40 ms (P less than 0.05).
(14) Maximal yields of lipid and aflatoxin were obtained with 30% glucose, whereas mold growth, expressed as dry weight, was maximal when the medium contained 10% glucose.
(15) Epidermal growth factor reduced plating efficiency by about 50% for A431 cells in different cell cycle phases whereas a slight increase in plating efficiency was seen for SiHa cells.
(16) Peak Expiratory Flow and Forced Expiratory Mean Flows in the ranges 0-25%, 25-50% and 50-75% of Forced Vital Capacity were significantly reduced in animals exposed to gasoline exhaust fumes, whereas the group exposed to ethanol exhaust fumes did not differ from the control group.
(17) When the eye was dissected into anterior uveal, scleral, and retinal complexes, prostaglandin D2 was formed in the highest degree in all the complexes, whereas prostaglandin E2 and F2 alpha formation was specific to given ocular regions.
(18) This mAb inhibited monocyte binding of both soluble FITC-labeled IgA and IgA-coated E, whereas it did not inhibit IgG binding.
(19) Chloroquine induced large cytoplasmic vacuoles, whereas the other drugs (quinacrine, 4,4'-diethylaminoethoxyhexestrol, chlorphentermine, iprindole, 1-chloro-amitriptyline, clomipramine) caused formation of lamellated or crystalloid inclusions as usually seen in drug-induced lipidosis.
(20) hypoglossal nucleus), whereas in other areas the angiotensinogen gene was expressed only in a certain population of glial cells.
(adv.) By which; -- used relatively.
(adv.) By what; how; -- used interrogatively.
(1) Together these observations suggest that cytotactin is an endogenous cell surface modulatory protein and provide a possible mechanism whereby cytotactin may contribute to pattern formation during development, regeneration, tumorigenesis, and wound healing.
(2) The method described uses film DOT-I and DOT-II by Dupont, whereby the exposure of the step wedge takes place on a linear accelerator with a photo energy of 10 MeV.
(3) The present data support the hypothesis whereby weakly oncogenic B-ecotropic viruses similar to those activated by radiation might be involved in the development of TL.
(4) Indications of precautions to be taken are defined and suggestions are drawn up whereby residual laxity in extension may be limited.
(5) Mechanisms are suggested whereby rudimentary appetitive programs already encoded along facing dendrite membrane pairs within the specialized intrafascicular milieu, may trigger and control nipple search and suckling in the still blind and only primitively mobile neonate.
(6) Because the mechanism whereby Shigella dysenteriae I enterotoxin induces intestinal secretion is unclear, the effect of this toxin on adenylate cyclase activity in rabbit ileal mucosa was studied under various in vitro and in vivo conditions.
(7) Completely unknown is the mechanism whereby NADH oxidation and growth or growth control may be coupled.
(8) Possible mechanisms whereby proteolytic cleavage of VP2 may enhance the infectivity and HA activity of BTV 20 are discussed.
(9) A simplified procedure is described whereby tissue is removed via a posterior eyelid approach so that the eyelid may be tightened both horizontally and vertically, thus inverting the punctum and fixating it in the lacrimal lake.
(10) The authors describe several recent court cases in which judges have ignored or distorted acceptable clinical practices, conceivably creating a new liability standard whereby a tragic outcome is considered the result of failure to apply appropriate judgment.
(11) Since the temperature of the monkey was unchanged as long as the physiological ratio of sodium to calcium in the perfusion fluid remained constant, we conclude that the balance between these two essential cations within the brain stem could determine the neural mechanism whereby the set-point for body temperature of the primate is established.
(12) Physical disruption of the gut mucosal barrier appears to be the primary mechanism whereby endotoxin promotes bacterial translocation.
(13) That does not translate magically into a conflict of interest whereby the interests of these lawyers is suddenly contrary to those of the defendants,” Ryan argued to Pohl.
(14) Our aim was to determine the mechanism whereby oligohydroamnios causes reduced fetal lung expansion and eventual lung hypoplasia.
(15) This requires multiple insulin injections, whereby 60 to 70% of the total daily insulin amount are administered as preprandial boli of short or intermediate acting insulin.
(16) That would mark a controversial break from its existing policy, whereby the ECB offsets bond purchases by draining liquidity from the system in separate operations.
(17) Chilcot has now embarked on the “Maxwellisation process”, whereby those the inquiry intends to criticise will be sent draft passages of the report for comment.
(18) The mechanism whereby deferoxamine (DF) inhibits the growth of malaria parasites was studied in rats infected with Plasmodium berghei.
(19) K+ release from 2-10 min minus initial K+ uptake) increased from 0.1 to 2.2 mumol X g-1 liver, whereby simultaneously the alanine tissue level rose from 6.8 to 13.3 mumol X g-1 (corresponding to an increase of the intracellular alanine concentration from about 12 to 25 mM) in presence of aminooxyacetate.
(20) Ultrastructural investigations involved a novel method whereby thick sections of gluteraldehyde-fixed material were cut on a vibratome and then labelled using slight modifications of a standard unlabelled antibody-enzyme (PAP) technique, before further processing.